# Introduction

This vignette provides a detailed guide to specific functions within the BGmisc package that aid in the identification and fitting of variance component models common in behavior genetics. We will explore key functions such as identifyComponentModel, providing practical examples and theoretical background. Identification ensures a unique set of parameters that define the model-implied covariance matrix, preventing free parameters from trading off one another.

Ensure that the BGmisc package is installed and loaded.

Ensure that the following dependencies are installed before proceeding as they provide us with behavior genetic data and models:

• EasyMx

• OpenMx

library(BGmisc)
library(EasyMx)
library(OpenMx)

Note: If any of the libraries are not installed, you can install them using install.packages(“package_name”).

# Working with Variance Component Models

In this section, we will demonstrate core functions related to the identification and fitting of variance component models.

## Using comp2vech Function

The comp2vech function is used to vectorize a components model. The function is often used in conjunction with the identification process. In this example, we apply it to a list of matrices:

comp2vech(list(
matrix(c(1, .5, .5, 1), 2, 2),
matrix(1, 2, 2)
))
#> [1] 1.0 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

The result showcases how the matrices have been transformed, reflecting their role in subsequent variance component analysis.

## Using identifyComponentModel Function

The identifyComponentModel function helps determine if a variance components model is identified. It accepts relatedness component matrices and returns information about identified and non-identified parameters.

Here’s an example using the classical twin model with only MZ twins:

identifyComponentModel(
A = list(matrix(1, 2, 2)),
C = list(matrix(1, 2, 2)),
E = diag(1, 2)
)
#> Component model is not identified.
#> Non-identified parameters are  A, C
#> $identified #> [1] FALSE #> #>$nidp
#> [1] "A" "C"

As you can see, the model is not identified. We need to add an additional group so that we have sufficient information. Let us add the rest of the classical twin model, in this case DZ twins.

identifyComponentModel(
A = list(matrix(c(1, .5, .5, 1), 2, 2), matrix(1, 2, 2)),
C = list(matrix(1, 2, 2), matrix(1, 2, 2)),
E = diag(1, 4)
)
#> Component model is identified.
#> $identified #> [1] TRUE #> #>$nidp
#> character(0)

As you can see the model is identified, now that we’ve added another group. Let us confirm by fitting a model. First we prepare the data.

require(dplyr)
#>
#> Attaching package: 'dplyr'
#> The following objects are masked from 'package:stats':
#>
#>     filter, lag
#> The following objects are masked from 'package:base':
#>
#>     intersect, setdiff, setequal, union
# require(purrr)

data(twinData, package = "OpenMx")
selVars <- c("ht1", "ht2")

mzdzData <- subset(
twinData, zyg %in% c(1, 3),
c(selVars, "zyg")
)

mzdzData$RCoef <- c(1, NA, .5)[mzdzData$zyg]

mzData <- mzdzData %>% filter(zyg == 1)

Let us fit the data with MZ twins by themselves.

run1 <- emxTwinModel(
model = "Cholesky",
relatedness = "RCoef",
data = mzData,
use = selVars,
run = TRUE, name = "TwCh"
)
#> Running TwCh with 4 parameters
#> Warning: In model 'TwCh' Optimizer returned a non-zero status code 5. The
#> Hessian at the solution does not appear to be convex. See
#> ?mxCheckIdentification for possible diagnosis (Mx status RED).

summary(run1)
#> Summary of TwCh
#>
#> The Hessian at the solution does not appear to be convex. See ?mxCheckIdentification for possible diagnosis (Mx status RED).
#>
#> free parameters:
#>      name matrix row col   Estimate    Std.Error A lbound ubound
#> 1 sqrtA11  sqrtA   1   1 0.05090090           NA    1e-06
#> 2 sqrtC11  sqrtC   1   1 0.03565565           NA !     0!
#> 3 sqrtE11  sqrtE   1   1 0.02325722 0.0007017955 !     0!
#> 4    Mht1  Means ht1   1 1.62974907 0.0027023908
#>
#> Model Statistics:
#>                |  Parameters  |  Degrees of Freedom  |  Fit (-2lnL units)
#>        Model:              4                   1112             -3693.148
#>    Saturated:              5                   1111                    NA
#> Independence:              4                   1112                    NA
#> Number of observations/statistics: 569/1116
#>
#>
#> ** Information matrix is not positive definite (not at a candidate optimum).
#>   Be suspicious of these results. At minimum, do not trust the standard errors.
#>
#> Information Criteria:
#>       |  df Penalty  |  Parameters Penalty  |  Sample-Size Adjusted
#> AIC:      -5917.148              -3685.148                -3685.078
#> BIC:     -10747.543              -3667.773                -3680.471
#> To get additional fit indices, see help(mxRefModels)
#> timestamp: 2024-02-26 12:25:25
#> Wall clock time: 0.08756399 secs
#> optimizer:  SLSQP
#> OpenMx version number: 2.21.11
#> Need help?  See help(mxSummary)

As you can see the model was unsuccessful because it was not identified. But when we add another group, so that the model is identified, the model now fits.

run2 <- emxTwinModel(
model = "Cholesky",
relatedness = "RCoef",
data = mzdzData,
use = selVars,
run = TRUE, name = "TwCh"
)
#> Running TwCh with 4 parameters

summary(run2)
#> Summary of TwCh
#>
#> free parameters:
#>      name matrix row col   Estimate    Std.Error A lbound ubound
#> 1 sqrtA11  sqrtA   1   1 0.06339271 0.0014377690    1e-06
#> 2 sqrtC11  sqrtC   1   1 0.00000100 0.0250258713 !     0!
#> 3 sqrtE11  sqrtE   1   1 0.02330040 0.0007015267       0!
#> 4    Mht1  Means ht1   1 1.63295540 0.0020511844
#>
#> Model Statistics:
#>                |  Parameters  |  Degrees of Freedom  |  Fit (-2lnL units)
#>        Model:              4                   1803             -5507.092
#>    Saturated:              5                   1802                    NA
#> Independence:              4                   1803                    NA
#> Number of observations/statistics: 920/1807
#>
#> Information Criteria:
#>       |  df Penalty  |  Parameters Penalty  |  Sample-Size Adjusted
#> AIC:      -9113.092              -5499.092                -5499.048
#> BIC:     -17811.437              -5479.794                -5492.498
#> To get additional fit indices, see help(mxRefModels)
#> timestamp: 2024-02-26 12:25:26
#> Wall clock time: 0.05750704 secs
#> optimizer:  SLSQP
#> OpenMx version number: 2.21.11
#> Need help?  See help(mxSummary)